Simple Vehicle Tracking System Circuit Diagram

This is the Vehicle Tracking System Based on GPS and GSM Circuit Project. Presented here is an Arduino-based vehicle tracking system using global positioning system (GPS) and global system for mobile communication (GSM) modules. GSM modem with a SIM card used here uses the communication technique of a regular cellphone. The system can be installed or hidden in your vehicle at a suitable location. After installing this circuit, you can easily track your stolen vehicle using a mobile phone. The author’s prototype is shown in Fig. 1.

Circuit and working

Circuit diagram of the GPS- and GSM-based vehicle tracking system is shown in Fig. 2. It is built around Arduino Uno board (BOARD1), 16×2 LCD (LCD1), GPS module, GSM module and a potmeter (VR1). Working of the circuit is very simple. To operate the circuit, you need to follow the steps given below:

Simple Vehicle Tracking System Circuit Diagram
 Simple Vehicle Tracking System Circuit Diagram

1. First, install Arduino IDE 1.8.3 in your PC. Add GPRS_Shield_Arduino’s header file into the library of Arduino IDE. Download the file from the link.

2. Include or add the user’s mobile number (on which you want to receive the GPS location messages) in the source code (vehicle_code.ino). Compile and upload the code onto the Arduino board using Arduino IDE

3. Once the code is burnt, make connections as shown in the circuit diagram.

4. Insert a valid SIM card in the GSM module connected with the Arduino board. Make sure that this SIM has necessary balance to send alert messages to the user’s mobile phone.

Construction and testing

An actual-size PCB layout of GPS- and GSM-based vehicle tracking system is shown in Fig. 3 and its components layout in Fig. 4.

 Fig. 3: PCB layout of GPS- and GSM-based vehicle tracking system

Fig. 4: Components layout for the PCB

Once you are done with connections and uploading of the code, place the system (Arduino, LCD, GPS and GSM with SIM card) in the vehicle. Now it’s time to track the SIM card inserted in the GSM module. To track the SIM card, send an SMS to the mobile number of the SIM card by typing “Track Vehicle” from your (user) mobile phone.

After sending the message, wait for a few seconds until you receive location detail of the SIM card in the form of latitude and longitude values on LCD1 as well as in your mobile phone. Vary preset VR1 till you get clear visible text on the LCD1. After getting the latitude and longitude position (in decimal format), convert the first four digits of these values into degrees and minutes like 28°38’ and 77°13’. Enter these values in the search box of Google Maps and then click “Search” button to find the exact location.


The system can be used by individual vehicle owners as well as organisations to locate and track their vehicles. Organisations can use it to track the status of their product delivery by trucks at all times. It also helps owners to keep tab on their driver, preventing vehicle abuse and thus resulting in significant cost-savings. The system can be easily installed in any vehicle such as cars, boats and motorbikes.

Sourced By : EFY : Author: Vivek Kumar Kamboj

32-core AMD Threadripper Processor

32-core AMD Threadripper processor will cost significantly less than a competitor from Intel. In early June, AMD demonstrated the second generation of Threadripper processors for high-performance systems. The older version in this lineup is a 32-core Threadripper 2990X with 64 threads, executed on a 12-nanometer process technology. Eyewitnesses from the resource Videocardz found this "stone" in a German online store, where it was indicated and its price - 1500 euros (about $ 1710).

32-core AMD Threadripper Processor

However, soon the price on the site was removed, but the Internet does not forget anything. If this cost turns out to be true, then we can conclude that AMD again imposes a price war on Intel. For what the red can only thank. After all, the 18-core competitor in the form of Intel Core i9-7980XE in the US costs from $ 2100, and in Belarus even more.

Note that in the recent Cinebench R15 synthetic tests on the Internet, AMD's processor outperforms its competitor from Intel. So for Intel, such a price policy of AMD is bad news.

Simple Latch Circuit Diagram

This is a Simple Latch Circuit Diagram project. Electronic latch circuits can be either active-high or active-low. The difference is determined by whether the operation of the latch circuit is triggered by HIGH or LOW signals on the inputs.

    Active-high circuit: Both inputs are normally tied to ground (LOW), and the latch is triggered by a momentary HIGH signal on either of the inputs.

    Active-low circuit: Both inputs are normally HIGH, and the latch is triggered by a momentary LOW signal on either input.

These two projects show you how to build simple active-high and active-low latch circuits using a 4001 quad 2-input NOR gate integrated circuit (IC) and a 4011 quad 2-input NAND gate IC. Both the Q and Q-bar outputs are used to drive LEDs so you can see the state of the latch, and both inputs are controlled by normally-open pushbuttons so that you can trigger the latch by momentarily pressing the buttons.

This is what the assembled active-high latch will look like when you are done:

Simple Latch Circuit Diagram

If you compare the schematic diagrams between these two projects, you’ll see that there are only these two differences between them:

    Gates: The active-high circuit uses a 4001 IC that contains NOR gates, while the active-low uses a 4011 IC, which contains NAND gates.

    Resistor and switch positions: The positions of R1 and R2 and SW1 and SW2 are reversed. In the active-high circuit, the resistors connect the two gate inputs to ground and the switches short the gate inputs to +6 V. In the active-low circuit, the resistors connect the gate inputs to +6 V and the switches short the gate inputs to ground.

Both of these circuits use simple pushbutton switches to provide the trigger inputs. However, you can easily imagine other sources for the trigger pulse. For example in a home alarm system, the SET-bar input in an active-low latch might come from a window switch that breaks contact when the window is open, and the RESET-bar input may come from a key lock on the alarm system’s control panel.

Once you have completed the second project, your assembled active-low latch will look like this:

A latch with a SET and RESET input is often called an SR latch. The term RS latch is also used.

In some cases, you may need a latch in which one of the inputs is active-high and the other is active-low. For example in the alarm system described in the previous paragraph, the key lock may send a HIGH signal when the alarm should be reset. Thus, the SET-bar input for the alarm latch is active-low, but the RESET input is active high.

You can easily accomplish that by adding an inverter to one of the inputs. Here, I’ve used NAND gates to create an active-low latch, but I’ve added a NOT gate to invert the RESET input. Thus, the SET-bar input of this inverter is active-low, and the RESET input is active-high.

Simple Latch Circuit Diagram

Sourced by: dummies / Doug Lowe

Police car light Flasher Circuit Diagram

This is the Police car light flasher circuit diagram. A very interesting circuit to mimic the police's car light flash. The main driver of the circuit is the 555 timer chips and the idea of police's car light flasher is having the light flash alternately and at the same time having vibrating flash.

In the demonstration 100 KOhm potentiometer is added between pin 2 and the electrolyte capacitor connected to the ground to control the flashing speed. Unfortunately no red and blue LED available for this demonstration and forced to use white and green as alternative that make it less convincing. It would have been more realistic if the LED were blue and red.

Police car light Flasher Circuit Diagram

 Police car light Flasher Circuit Diagram

Telephone Call Recorder

Today phone has become an integral part of our lives. It is the most widely used communication tool in the world. Owing to its immense popularity & widespread use, there arises a necessity for call recording devices, which find application in call cent-res, stock broking firms, police, offices, homes, etc. Here they are describing a call recorder that makes use of only a few parts. But in order to understand its working, must first have the basic knowledge of standard phone wiring as well as a stereo plug.

In India, land-line rings primarily use RJ11 wiring, which has wires-tip and ring. While tip is the positive wire, ring is the negative. And together they complete the phone circuit. In a phone line, voltage between tip and ring is around 48V DC when handset is on the cradle(idle line). In order to ring the phone for an incoming call, a 20Hz AC current of around 90V is superimposed over the DC voltage already present in the idle line. The negative wire from the phone line goes to IN1, while the positive wire goes to IN2. Further, the negative wire from OUT1 and the positive wire from OUT2 are connected to the phone. All the resistors used are 0.25W carbon film resistors and all the capacitors used are rated for 250V or more.

GPS Locked Frequency Standard Circuit Diagram

Imagine that one day you wake up to learn that all the GPS satellites have been destroyed. What's happening? War? Super-massive solar flare? Whatever it is you probably won't be spending the afternoon in your electronics hobby area. In all my years of playing with GPS it has never been "off the air." So, as a hobbyist, do you really need a GPS standard with "hold-over" that learns the properties of your oscillator and corrects the oscillator even when GPS is not present? (Hint: nope.) So why spend an inordinate amount of time and effort giving your standard a hold-over function you can only appreciate by physically disconnecting the GPS antenna?

This unit provides an excellent 10 MHz reference as long as an accurate 1PPs is supplied by the GPS receiver. When GPS goes down you should be brushing up on your hunter-gatherer skills anyway.

This simple frequency standard uses the 1PPS available from many GPS receivers to lock a stable oven-controlled oscillator, holding a few hundred uHz of accuracy from moment to moment depending on the quality of the oscillator. (My old "Small Fry" wanders under +- 2 x 10-11.) It's a "nearly" analog circuit using three logic chips to perform simple tasks and a third-order phase-locked loop realized with two op-amps. The PLL behaves as though the lock frequency is 1 MHz due to the sampling technique (albeit updated only once per second) so the phase sensitivity is about 1 million times higher than if the phase comparison were done at 1 Hz. Read more click here

Arduino Uno Board - DC Motor Starter Circuit

Motor starter reduces the load, torque and current surge of a motor during startup. On starting, the motor takes more than five times the normal running current. This overheats the motor’s armature winding and creates a sudden voltage dip in the power supply, which can be avoided by using a motor starter. There are many types of motor starters. Here we describe an electronic DC motor starter using Arduino Uno board. This circuit controls both soft-start and soft-stop timings through pulse-width modulation (PWM).

Circuit and working

Circuit diagram of the DC motor soft-starter is shown in Fig. 1. In addition to Arduino Uno board (Board1), it uses PIC817 optocoupler (IC1), p-channel IRF9530 MOSFET (T1), 1N4007 rectifier diode (D1), 12V DC motor (M1) for testing, bi-colour LED (LED1) and a few other components.

Arduino Uno Board - DC Motor Starter
Fig. 1: Circuit diagram of DC motor starter using Arduino Uno

Arduino Uno board is an important part of the circuit that generates PWM signals. Pushbuttons (S1 and S2) are used to soft-start and soft-stop the motor. The bi-colour LED indicates whether the motor is in soft-start or soft-stop mode.

When the circuit is switched on, the motor is at rest and LED1 off. When push button S1 is pressed momentarily, the voltage across the motor increases gradually and attains maximum voltage after the predetermined soft-start timing. So the motor first starts at a slow speed. In this state, LED1 emits green light. After the soft-start time, i.e., in running condition, LED1 emits orange light, indicating that the motor is running at the rated speed.

If pushbutton S2 is pressed momentarily while the motor is running at the rated speed, the voltage across the motor decreases gradually and becomes zero after the soft-stop time. So the motor speed also decreases gradually and it finally stops after the soft-stop time. In this state, LED1 emits red colour. After the soft-stop time, LED1 doesn’t glow, indicating that the motor is at rest.

Arduino Uno is programmed such that if switch S1 or S2 is pressed more than once before the timing ends, it executes only once. This prevents the motor from restarting suddenly.
The circuit is isolated by an optocoupler (IC1) so that any disturbance in the motor power supply doesn’t affect the Arduino Uno board. The freewheeling diode (D1) gives additional protection over induced voltage when the motor is turned off.

The circuit’s operation is controlled using the software program loaded into the internal memory of Arduino Uno board. The program (softs.ino) is written in Arduino programming language sketch. Arduino IDE is used to compile and upload the program to the Arduino board.

Construction and testing

A PCB layout of the DC motor soft-starter is shown in Fig. 2 and its components layout in Fig. 3. After assembling the circuit on a PCB, connect CON2 to Arduino Uno board through external male-to-male jumper wires. After uploading the code to Board1, enclose the assembled PCB along with Board1 in a suitable plastic box.

The circuit works off the 5V USB power supply used for Arduino Uno board. Regulated 12V power supply is used to operate the DC motor.

Fig. 2: PCB layout of the DC motor starter using Arduino Uno

Fig. 3: Components layout for the PCB

The circuit can be converted into an AC motor soft-starter by using thyristors in place of MOSFET T1. It can be used along with device control projects. Additional protection and closed-loop control can be included, if required. Different timings and PWM values can be set for both soft-start and soft-stop.

Sourced By: Streampowers

APEX - 500W Power Amplifier B500 Circuit Diagram

This the easy and simple APEX - 500W Power Amplifier B500 Circuit Diagram. Power amplifier circuit schematic APEX following B500 visible part of the Pre-Amp use type IC NE5532. The output of IC NE5532 is given to the driver amplifier transistor. Part of these drivers will have two different outputs of phase from each other by 180 °. Part driver consists of transistors Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4. Because the final amplifier circuit requires considerable input signal, then the driver is compiled with Darlington configuration.

APEX  - 500W Power Amplifier B500 Circuit Diagram
APEX  - 500W Power Amplifier B500 Circuit Diagram

Kits B500 APEX 500W Power Amplifier

To be able to work optimally, the power amplifier circuit B500 APEX requires ration symmetrical voltage of ± 90 volts, with a current 15-20 Ampere. Use the original transistor amplifier, especially on the final / final, because the source of the applied voltage (± 90 volts) just for the ideal transistor or original. If unsure transistor used is not genuine, then do not ever use a working voltage of ± 90 Volts, because it can lead to the final amplifier transistor broken / damaged. To test this, use a voltage gradually, ranging from ± 25V, ± 30V, ± 45V, and so on.

In the assembly do not forget to give the room a good cooling in all transistor power, attach the fan (blower) to be stable when working at maximum volume primarily for purposes such as concerts stage.

Sourced By: elcircuit

Introduction to Amplifier (Rise)

Amplification is the method of increasing the amplitude of a AC signal current or voltage such as audio signal for sound or video signal for a television picture. The amplifier allows a small input signal to control a bigger amount of power in the output circuit. The output signal is a replica of the original input signal but has higher amplitude.

Amplification is necessary as in most applications, the signal is weak to be used directly. For example, an audio output of 1mV from a microphone is unable to drive a loud speaker which requires a few volts to operate. Hence, the signal require to be amplified to a few volts before it can be fed in to the loud speaker.

NP N Transistor Circuit Configurations
An example of different type of transistor configurations in the circuit.

(1) The common emitter(CE) circuit makes use of emitter as its common electrode. The input signal is applied to the base and the amplified output is taken from the collector. This is the usually use because it's the best combination of current gain & voltage gain.

(2) The common base (CB) circuit makes use of base as its common electrode. The input signal is applied to the emitter & the amplified output is taken from the collector. The comparatively high emitter current compared to the base current ends in low input impedance value. For this reason, the CB circuit is never used.

(3) The common collector (CC) circuit makes use of collector as its common electrode. The input signal is applied to the base & the amplified output is taken from the emitter. This circuit is also called an emitter follower. This name means that the output signal voltage at the emitter follows the input signal at the base with the same phase but less amplitude. The voltage gain is less than one & is usually used for impedance matching. It's high input at the base as a load for the earlier circuit & low output impedance at the emitter as a signal source for the next circuit.


They can be classified in to classes A, B, C & AB. They are defined based on the percent of the cycle of input signal that can produce output current.

In Class A, the output current flows for the full cycle of 360 degree of input signal. The distortion is the lowest with around 5% to 10% &an efficiency of 20% to 40%. In general, most tiny signal operate class A

In Class C, the output current flows for less than half of the input cycle. Typical operation is 120 degree of input current in the coursework of the positive half cycle of the input current. This class has an efficiency of 80% but has the highest distortion. This class is usually used for RF amplification with a tuned circuit in the output.

In Class B, the output current flows for half of the input cycle which is around 180 degree. Class B operation lies between class A & class C. Classes B are usually connected in pairs & in such a circuit called push-pull amplifier. The push pull is often used for audio power output to a loud speaker.

In Class AB, it offers a compromise between the low distortion of class A & the higher power of class B. It is usually used for push pull audio power amplifiers.

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